European Union

The European Union has implemented the GHS through the CLP Regulation. Nevertheless, the older system based on the Dangerous Substances Directive will continue to be used in parallel until 2016. Some R-phrases which do not have simple equivalents under the GHS have been retained under the CLP Regulation: the numbering mirrors the number of the previous R-phrase.

      Physical properties

      EUH001: Explosive when dry

EUH006: Explosive with or without contact with air

EUH014: Reacts violently with water

Hazard statements are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with:

an identification of the product;

one or more hazard pictograms (where necessary)

a signal word – either DANGER or WARNING – where necessary

precautionary statements, indicating how the product should be handled to minimize risks to the user (as well as to other people and the general environment)

the identity of the supplier (who might be a manufacturer or importer)

Each hazard statement is designated a code, starting with the letter H and followed by three digits. Statements which correspond to related hazards are grouped together by code number, so the numbering is not consecutive. The code is used for reference purposes, for example to help with translations, but it is the actual phrase which should appear on labels and safety data sheets.

Physical hazards

      H200: Unstable explosive

      H201: Explosive; mass explosion hazard

R-phrases (short for Risk Phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. The list was consolidated and republished in Directive 2001/59/EC, where translations into other EU languages may be found.

These risk phrases are used internationally, not just in Europe, and there is an ongoing effort towards complete international harmonization.

R1 Explosive when dry

R2 Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition

R3 Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition

Precautionary statements are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with:

an identification of the product;

one or more hazard pictograms (where necessary)

a signal word – either DANGER or WARNING – where necessary

hazard statements, indicating the nature and degree of the risks posed by the product

the identity of the supplier (who might be a manufacturer or importer)

Each precautionary statement is designated a code, starting with the letter P and followed by three digits. Statements which correspond to related hazards are grouped together by code number, so the numbering is not consecutive. The code is used for reference purposes, for example to help with translations, but it is the actual phrase which should appear on labels and safety data sheets.[4] Some precautionary phrases are combinations, indicated by a plus sign "+". In several cases, there is a choice of wording, for example "Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray": the supplier or regulatory agency should choose the appropriate wording for the product concerned.

      General precautionary statements

P101: If medical advice is needed, have product container or label at hand

P102: Keep out of reach of children

P103: Read label before use

Hazard statements are appended to products or compounds depending on their classification. GHS - Global Harmonized System - is a classification system created by the UN. Based on GHS, the EU has created CLP - Classification Labelling and Packing - a classification system meant for the whole of the EU, and currently under implementation.